Declaring Exported Functions
To declare functions that are to be exported (i.e., made available to PHP
as new native functions), Zend provides a set of macros. A sample declaration
looks like this:
ZEND_FUNCTION ( my_function );
ZEND_FUNCTION declares a new C function that complies
with Zend's internal API. This means that the function is of
type void and
accepts INTERNAL_FUNCTION_PARAMETERS (another macro) as
parameters. Additionally, it prefixes the function name with
zif. The immediately expanded version of the above
definitions would look like this:
void zif_my_function ( INTERNAL_FUNCTION_PARAMETERS );
results in the following:
void zif_my_function( int ht
, zval * return_value
, zval * this_ptr
, int return_value_used
, zend_executor_globals * executor_globals
Since the interpreter and executor core have been separated from
the main PHP package, a second API defining macros and function
sets has evolved: the Zend API. As the Zend API now handles quite
a few of the responsibilities that previously belonged to PHP, a
lot of PHP functions have been reduced to macros aliasing to calls
into the Zend API. The recommended practice is to use the Zend API
wherever possible, as the old API is only preserved for
compatibility reasons. For example, the types zval
and pval are identical. zval is
Zend's definition; pval is PHP's definition
(actually, pval is an alias for zval
now). As the macro INTERNAL_FUNCTION_PARAMETERS
is a Zend macro, the above declaration contains
zval. When writing code, you should always use
zval to conform to the new Zend API.
The parameter list of this declaration is very important; you should keep these parameters in mind (see 表格 31-1 for descriptions).
表格 31-1. Zend's Parameters to Functions Called from PHP
The number of arguments passed to the Zend function.
You should not touch this directly, but instead use ZEND_NUM_ARGS() to obtain the
This variable is used to pass any return values of
your function back to PHP. Access to this variable is best done using the
predefined macros. For a description of these see below.
Using this variable, you can gain access to the object
in which your function is contained, if it's used within an object. Use
the function getThis() to obtain this pointer.
This flag indicates whether an eventual return value
from this function will actually be used by the calling script.
0 indicates that the return value is not used;
1 indicates that the caller expects a return value.
Evaluation of this flag can be done to verify correct usage of the function as
well as speed optimizations in case returning a value requires expensive
operations (for an example, see how array.c makes use of
This variable points to global settings of the Zend
engine. You'll find this useful when creating new variables, for example
(more about this later). The executor globals can also be introduced to your
function by using the macro TSRMLS_FETCH().